The production of cement is responsible for 8% of the world's roughly one billion metric tons of Greenhouse Gas emissions (GHG).
There is a 1:1 ratio of cement production and carbon dioxide emissions; 1-ton cement = 1-ton CO2.
The US produced and consumed 102 million metric tons of cement in 2019.
Defending against rising seas could cost US communities >$400 billion in the next 20 years.
Coal Ash impoundments are largely viewed as corporate and environmental liabilities, eyesores, and social burdens.
There are regional Coal Ash shortages in global cement markets.